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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:37 pm



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 2:10 am, editado 10 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:40 pm

    In Spanish there are no mixture of vowels like in French for example, vowels are pure and open. If you write something you read it the same way, letters will never change depending on the accent or where it´s placed in the phrase. Therefore we can say that Spanish is simpler to learn than other languages just because from the very beggining you will be reading as you should and writing as...

    • A E I O U normal, as in the word CAN, TEN, SIN, COT, TULIP

    • LL This double L sounds ALWAYS like in the words JOHN, JIM, JUICE To pronounce this sound like an SH or like a normal I is considered an accent.

    • QU In Spanish the Q goes ALWAYS followed by a U after this combination of letters can only come an E or an I. We pronounce it like QUE= KE QUI= KI. (U doesn´t sound)

    • G this letter sounds normal with A O U (Galon, Gong, Gunther) and it changes into a strong sound with E and I (GE GI). The strong sound is the same we can find in Arab or Hebrew for the words Hoppa or Ahmed. Is the same sound we use when a fish bone is in our throat and we try to get it out, or when we are about to spit very strong (I apologize for the comparison, but the first priority is pronounciation)

    • G+U+E G+U+I To make the soft sound with G and the letters E and I we put a U in the middle, this U doesn´t sound. Therefore the verb "to get" in english, we would write it in Spanish like TU GUET "to give" like TU GUIV.

    • V in Spanish nowadays sounds totally like a normal B, it´s another mistake to pronounce it like an English V. Therefore "Bill" and "Vilna" would sound BIL, BILNA.

    • R will sound soft only when it´s between two vowels, in the other cases will be strong (like the german R, as strong as you can pronounce it) Try to imitate how people from India or Russia says the R in the word America (very strong).

    • Ñ This letter sounds like NH in other languages (Piranha, Caipirinha,) or like the word Champagne but well pronounced.

    • J Sounds always strong with all the vowels, (like G with GE and GI) exactly this spitting sound (I apologize once again).

    • C sounds like KA KO KU only with these letters (A, O, U) and soft with CE CI, this soft sound is exactly the one in the words "Thin" "Thought" "Thing"

    • Z goes only with the letters A O U so, ZA, ZO, ZU. Sounds like "Thin" or "Thanks" (Z will never go with E or I).

    • B,D,F,K,L,M,N,P,S,T and X Sound totally normal, (L is normal like in the words "Lantern" "Lincoln" "Light".

    • H in Spanish has absolutely no sound, just ignore it in the words. (except with CH, this sounds like in "China".

    • W is used only for foreign words and it sounds exactly as in English "William"
      must be clear and pure, specially vowels.




    Última edición por LiA el Vie Mayo 29, 2009 8:46 pm, editado 2 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:41 pm

    BASIC WORDS AND GREETINGS


    • Hola= Hello (remember H doesn´t have any sound)

    • Adios= Bye

    • Gracias= Thanks

    • Por favor= Please (V sounds like B)

    • Buenos dias= Good morning

    • Buenas tardes= Good evening

    • Buenas noches= Good night

    • Me llamo Francisco= I am called Francisco

    • Soy Francisco= I am Francisco

    • Mi nombre es Francisco= My name is Francisco

    • Encantado de conocerte= Pleased to meet you

    • SI= YES - IF

    • NO= NO


    Let´s analize:

    You should pronounce the C in Gracias as we showed you ("Thin" "Thought")

    Soy Francisco starts already with the verb, not with a pronoun (Yo soy Francisco), this is because in Spanish the verbs have endings and we know who is the subject of the action without the need of pronouns.

    Mi nombre es,
    • Mi is the first posesive pronoun (My in english) .


    Encantado= pleased
    • ADO and IDO are the past particles, like the english ending -ED (Played or Cooked)


    Conocerte= To know YOU,
    • The verb `To know" in infinitive is CONOCER if we add this TE at the end the action goes to YOU (To know YOU)


    Bueno= Good, Buenos= Good in plural.
    • The adjectives in Spanish are formed also in plural adding an -S
    • Gato (cat) and casa (House) The plurals would be Gatos (cats) and Casas (houses).
    • Dias means "days" (so literally Buenos dias= Good days!)


    Me llamo= LLAMAR would be the verb TO CALL
    • Yo llamo= I call
    • Yo me llamo= I call myself or I am called.



    Última edición por LiA el Vie Mayo 29, 2009 8:58 pm, editado 1 vez
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:42 pm

    ARTICLES


    In Spanish there are articles like in English for determined (The house) and undetermined (A house)

    The articles are:

    UN LIBRO (A book) MASC. INDETERMINED
    UNOS LIBROS (Some books) MASC. PLUR. INDETERMINED

    UNA CASA (A house) FEM. INDETERMINED
    UNAS CASAS (Some houses) FEM. PLUR. INDETERMINED

    There is gender in Spanish for the words, Libro is masculine finishes in O, Casa is feminine finishes in A.

    Almost all the words finishing in O are masculine, and almost all the words finishing in A are femenine.

    EL LIBRO (The book) MASC. DETERMINED
    LOS LIBROS (The books) MASC. PLUR. DETERMINED

    LA CASA (The house) FEM. DETERMINED
    LAS CASAS (The houses) FEM. PLUR. DETERMINED

    Try to put the articles to "GATOS" in a paper, go on reading to find the solution...




    Última edición por LiA el Vie Mayo 29, 2009 11:32 pm, editado 1 vez
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:43 pm

    BASIC PHRASES


    • Me gusta= I like (it´s liked by me)
      Me gustan= I like (for plural)

    • Quiero= I want

    • Tengo= I have

    • Debo= I must


    The first person of regular verbs finish always in O (tengo, quiero etc.)

    • Los Gatos (determined)
      Unos gatos ( indetermined)

    • Tengo una casa= I have a house

    • Quiero el libro en mi casa= I want the book in my house

    • Me gusta mi casa= I like my house

    • Me gusta mi nombre= I like my name

    • Tengo un dia complicado= I have a complicated day (we have seen already how -ED becomes -ADO or -IDO.

    • Los libros son buenos= The books are good.

    • Me gustan los libros= I like the books


    -To make the negative we add NO always at the begining of the phrase
    • No me gustan los libros= I don´t like books

    • No quiero llamar a Juan= I don´t want to call John





    Última edición por LiA el Vie Mayo 29, 2009 11:44 pm, editado 1 vez
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:47 pm

    First phrases


    You already know some Spanish words, here are some international words that we can use also in Spanish.

    Bar, Sandwich, Taxi, Parking, Manager, Marketing, Pub, Stress, Cafeteria (Cafe), Gas, ticket also names of minerals and elements in Latin, sciences and medical specialities (Cardiologia, Urologia etc...) it only changes slightly the end.

    The words of Latin origin are changed very easily from English: Action= Accion, Extraction= extraccion, constelation= constelacion,...

    Latin and greek adverbs such as Rarely, Purely, Naturally etc change into -amente.

    Rarely= raramente
    Purely= puramente
    Naturally= naturalmente


    Latin expressions don´t change: Gratis, Pro forma, Quid pro quo.

    The latin and greek prefixes and sufixes are also in Spanish:

    Re= again
    Re-make= Rehacer (only changes the verb as its natural)
    Anti= Against ( antiterrorista )
    Trans= through ( transporte)


    Word finishing in the greek sufix -ist in English are in Spanish -ista (except for some exceptions like scientist).

    Usually these words ending in T in English (latin-greek ones) come to Spanish as -Te

    President= Presidente
    Important= Importante

    Words like Impact, Tact, Contact... will be done like: Impacto, Tacto, Contacto


    It will take you some time to identify these latin words in other languages, but once you know the method, a phrase like "A taxi normally transports a person" would be "Un taxi normalmente transporta una persona" .

    Starting with the initial words:

    1. . The days of the week from Monday to Sunday:
      Lunes, Martes, Miercoles, Jueves, Viernes, Sabado, Domingo
      monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday, friday, saturday, sunday


    2. The seasons:
      Primavera, Verano, Otoño, Invierno
      Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter


    3. The colours:

    Rojo, Amarillo, Naranja, Verde, Azul, Marron, Blanco, Negro, Gris
    red, yellow, orange, green, blue, brown, white, black, grey


    • The plural and gender of the colours:

    Rojo/amarillo is masculine, to make the feminine we simply put an A
    Roja= Red (feminine names)
    Amarilla= yellow (feminine names)
    To make the feminine plural we put an S ( rojas/amarillas)
    La casa= The house (finishes in A, so house is feminine)
    La casa es roja/amarilla= the house is red/yellow
    Las casas son rojas/amarillas= the houses are red/yellow

    ES= IS
    SON= ARE


    Naranja already finishes in the masculine case in A, so we don´t have to change anything.

    It´s the same for masculine and feminine.
    El libro es naranja= the book is orange
    Una casa es naranja= a house is orange

    For plural:
    Los libros son naranjas= the books are orange
    Las casas son naranjas= the houses are orange


    Verde finishes in E, another ending we don´t have to worry about, because it´s the same for masculine and feminine.

    Un libro verde
    La casa es verde
    Los libros son verdes
    Unas casas son verdes


    Azul also doesn´t finish in O or A, so it also doesn´t change, notice how we make the plural adding -ES, because it ends in a consonant (it would be very difficult to pronounce AZULS, so we add an E, AZULES)

    This happens with all the plurals when there is a consonant in the end.

    El libro es azul
    La casa es azul
    Los libros son azules
    Las casas son azules


    Marron= Marrones

    El libro es marron
    La casa es marron
    Las casas son marrones
    Los libros son marrones


    Gris= Grises
    Las casas son grises
    Los libros son grises
    La casa es gris
    El libro es gris


    Negro finishes in an O, it makes the feminine in A and the plural with S

    Las casas negras= the black houses
    Unos libros negros= some black books




    Última edición por LiA el Sáb Mayo 30, 2009 12:20 am, editado 1 vez
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:47 pm

    More words for our vocabulary


    Fem: Mesa= table Silla= chair Puerta= door Ventana= window Pared= wall
    Masc: Horno= oven Queso= cheese Perro= dog Pollo= Chicken Amigo= friend

    What does it mean?....

    • Me gusta la casa blanca= I like the white house

    • Necesito llamar a Sergio= I need to call Sergio

    • Me gustan los libros amarillos= I like the yellow books

    • El horno es blanco= The oven is white

    • Los perros son marrones= The dogs are brown

    • Tengo el telefono de un amigo de Alfredo= I have the phone of a friend of Alfredo.

    • Las sillas de mi casa son grises= The chairs of my house are grey

    • Me gusta el pollo del restaurante de mi amigo= I like the chicken of the restaurant of my friend.


    The preposition OF in Spanish is DE. When we have DE + EL we contract it in DEL

    We already know about the gender, the plural, colours, days of the week and we begin to see the logic of simple phrases.

    VOCABULARY

    Bus = Bus Barco = Ship Avion = Plane Coche = Car
    Hombre = man Mujer = Woman
    Chico = Boy Chica = GirlNiño = little boy Niña = little girl
    Jefe = Boss Policía = Police
    Padre = Father Madre = Mother Pa = dad Ma = mom
    Hijo = son Hija = daughterHermano = brother Hermana = sister
    Primo = cousin Prima = cousin (fem.)Tío = uncle Tía = aunt
    Abuelo = grandfather Nieto = grandson Abuela = Grandmother Nieta = Grandaughter

    • Mi padre es un policía = My father is a policeman

    • Tengo un hermano en Australia = I have a brother in Australia

    • El coche de mi abuelo es gris = The car of my grandfather is grey

    • Los trenes en España son amarillos = The trains in Spain are yellow

    • Tengo un barco verde, mi jefe tiene uno rojo = I have a green ship, my boss has a red one





    Última edición por LiA el Sáb Mayo 30, 2009 12:45 am, editado 1 vez
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:48 pm


    THE NUMBERS


    1 uno 2 dos 3 tres 4 cuatro 5 cinco 6 seis
    7 siete 8 ocho 9 nueve 10 diez 11 once 12 doce
    13 trece 14 catorce 15 quince 16 dieciseis 17 diecisiete18 dieciocho
    19 diecinueve 20 veinte 21 veintiuno 22 veintidos23 veintitres...

    After veinte, all the numbers will be made adding 1,2,3... (veintiuno, veintidos, veintitres etc.)
    • 30 treinta
    • 40 cuarenta
    • 50 cincuenta
    • 60 sesenta
    • 70 setenta
    • 80 ochenta
    • 90 noventa

    After 30 numbers are written in 3 words, but formed exactly the same:
    • veinticuatro (24)
    • veinticinco (25)
    • treinta y uno (31)
    • treinta y siete (37)
    • cuarenta y ocho(48)
    • cincuenta y nueve (59)
    • noventa y tres (93)

    Now let´s see the hundreds, they also follow a pattern so they will be easy to form. 100 CIEN (when the number goes alone)

    100 CIENTO... (when another number follows)
    101 ciento uno 104 ciento cuatro 113 ciento trece 146 ciento cuarenta y seis 175 ciento setenta y cinco 139 ciento treinta y nueve 198 ciento noventa y ocho
    • 100 cien
    • 200 doscientos
    • 300 trescientos
    • 400 cuatrocientos
    • 500 quinientos
    • 600 seiscientos
    • 700 setecientos
    • 800 ochocientos
    • 900 novecientos


    The numbers in red are irregulars, remember them.

    • 1000 mil
    • 2000 dos mil
    • 3000 tres mil
    • 4000 cuatro mil...


    The thousands are totally regular, but remember they don´t have plural
    200 doscientos is correct
    2000 dos miles is wrong (Dos mil is right)

    • 1,000,000 un millon(remember LL is read like in John or James)
    • 2,000,000 dos millones
    • 3,000,000 tres millones...

    Examples: (ejemplos)
    • 45.007 cuarenta y cinco mil siete
    • 322.515 trescientos veintidos mil quinietos quince

    One last thing. The European billion is the equivalent to one million of millions, have it in mind when you translate an ammount of money from english.

    This is all there is to know about numbers. Notice when the numbers go separate or together.




    Última edición por LiA el Sáb Mayo 30, 2009 1:32 am, editado 2 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:48 pm

    ADJECTIVES


    • Contento = Happy (Glad)
      Triste = sad

    • Fuerte = Strong
      Debil = weak

    • Alto = high/tall (people and things)
      Bajo = short/low

    • Grande = Big
      Peque ño = small/little

    • R ápido = fast
      Lento = slow

    • Interesante = Interesting
      Aburrido = boring

    • Guapo = handsome/pretty
      Feo = ugly (things/people)
      Bonito = pretty/beautiful (for things)

    • Agradable = nice/agreeable
      Desagradable = Disgusting

    • Simp ático = nice/funny
      Antip ático = Antipathic/rude

    • Gordo = Fat
      Delgado = thin/slim

    • Rico = rich
      Pobre = poor

    • Enfermo = ill/sick
      Sano = healthy

    • Caro = expensive
      Barato = cheap

    • Ligero = light
      Pesado = heavy

    • Fácil = easy
      Difícil = difficult

    • Sencillo = easy
      Complicado = Complicated

    • Lleno = full
      Vacío = empty

    • Largo = long
      Corto = short

    • Listo = clever
      Tonto = fool/silly
      Inteligente = intelligent

    • Claro = clear/light
      Oscuro = dark

    • Nuevo = New
      Viejo = old


    We have seen already how the adjectives go after the name ( casa roja = right / roja casa = wrong). This will always be like this except with this 2 exceptions;
    • In literary works, songs and poetry they use the adjectives first as an accepted resource, but it will be strange if we use in conversation lines taken from Don Quijote.

    • With the adjectives:
      Bueno = Good
      Malo = bad
      Nuevo= new (this can go before or after)

      the correct way is to put them first if they don't go with any adverb.

    Es un buen libro = It's a good book
    Es una mala película = It's a bad movie
    Es un libro muy bueno= It's a very good book

    When we add muy (very) is better to put the adjective "bueno" in the end because the phrase sounds more natural.

    Notice how the masculine loses the O.
    Buen libro
    Mal libro.





    Última edición por LiA el Sáb Mayo 30, 2009 1:41 am, editado 1 vez
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:49 pm

    PRACTICAL PART


    Here are some phrases, some of these words we have seen, some of them are new. Write the new ones in your notebook and notice how your vocabulary grows.

    Hola, buenos días. Me llamo Jorge, tengo veintiocho a ños .

    Me gustan las películas de acción. También me gusta conocer gente de paises diferentes.

    Puedo hablar inglés y español .

    Tengo que hablar con tu amigo Antonio, es muy importante. Mi coche está en su casa y no quiero ir en bus al trabajo.

    El lunes hay una fiesta en casa de Mar ía. Me gusta María, es muy divertida, tambien es muy guapa. Pero hay un problema, ella no me conoce. No puedo hablar con ella... no es fácil hablar con una chica así.

    ¡ Hola Sergio ! Estoy en Washington. Me gusta la casa blanca. En el restaurante hay pollo con tomate.

    Tengo veintiocho a ños = I am 28 years old (In spanish you "have" these 28 years)

    • De = of
    • tambi én = also/too
    • gente = people (in spanish people is singular) la gente es Agradable (instead of la gente son )
    • Que = what/that (we will study this word later)
    • Muy = very
    • IR = the verb TO GO in infinitive
    • AL = contraction of A EL (to the)
    • Trabajo = work (verb and action)
    • EN= IN
    • EL LUNES= ON MONDAY
    • HAY= there is/there are
    • Me conoce= knows me (we will see this later)


    Don't worry if you didn't understand most of the text, right now we are only building our vocabulary.

    When we have A + EL or DE + EL we contract into AL and DEL. Remember it.



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:48 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:51 pm



    FIRST VERBS


    • SER = TO BE (for things that don't change)
      Yo soy = I am

    • ESTAR = TO BE (for things that change)
      Yo estoy = I am

    • TENER = TO HAVE (only for posession)
      Yo tengo = I have

    • HABER = TO HAVE (as an auxiliary I have gone)
      Yo he = I have

    • COMER = TO EAT
      Yo como = I eat

    • BEBER = TO DRINK
      Yo bebo = I drink

    • QUERER = TO WANT
      Yo quiero = I want

    • GUSTAR = TO LIKE (it's reflexive "It's liked by me")
      Me gusta = I like

    • PODER = TO CAN/ TO BE ABLE
      Yo puedo = I can

    • CREER = TO BELIEVE/ TO THINK (in opinions)
      Yo creo = I believe

    • DORMIR = TO SLEEP
      Yo duermo = I sleep

    • NADAR = TO SWIM
      Yo nado = I swim

    • VIVIR = TO LIVE
      Yo vivo = I live.


    The verbs in Spanish have 3 posible endings, AR ER IR, if they are regulars they will follow the same conjugation depending of the ending.



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:49 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:52 pm


    PREPOSITIONS

    • A = to
    • CONTRA = against
    • DEBAJO = Under
    • DE = of / from
    • CON = With
    • DESDE = from
    • EN = in
    • ENTRE = between
    • HACIA = towards
    • HASTA = until/till
    • PARA = for
    • POR = by
    • SEGúN = according to
    • SIN = without
    • SOBRE = over/about


    The infinitive of the verbs we can use with these expressions we know:

    • Me gusta (I like)
    • Quiero (I want)
    • Tengo (I have)
    • Debo (I must)

    • Me gusta comer = I like to eat
    • Quiero beber = I want to drink
    • Debo dormir = I must sleep
    • Tengo que nadar = I have to swim


    In this phrase the word QUE is translated like THAT

    We can also put the prepositions making already long phrases:
    • Me gusta ir a la playa desde mi casa para nadar = I like to go to the beach from my house to swim.
    • Quiero comer en una mesa grande y estar con mis amigos = I want to eat in a big table and be with my friends
    • Tengo que vivir en España y creo que el país me gusta = I have to live in Spain and I think I like the country.
    • Segun mi amigo, en mi casa no tengo puertas bonitas = According to my friend in my house I don't have beautiful doors.
    • Estoy contento por el nuevo trabajo de Javier, Javier es muy simpatico = I am happy for the new job of Javier, Javier is very nice.



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:49 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:53 pm


    DEMOSTRATIVOS (this, that, those...)


    • Este = This (masc.)
    • Estes = These (masc. plur.)
    • Esta = This (fem.)
    • Estas = These (fem. plur.)

    • Ese = That (masc.)
    • Eses = Those (masc. plur.)
    • Esa = That (fem.)
    • Esas = Those (fem. plur.)

    • Aquel = That other (masc.)
    • Aquellos = Those others (masc. plur.)
    • Aquella = That other (fem.)
    • Aquellas = Those others (fem. plur.)


    In Spanish we have 3 degrees for the demonstratives, you can develop your conversation only with This (este) and That (ese) like in English. However, aquel is also used for things that are very far away.

    Example :
    • Tiempo = time

    • 21st century = En estes tiempos... (nowadays, in these times...)
    • 19th century = En eses tiempos... (In those times...)
    • 13th century = En aquellos tiempos... (In those times, in those distant times...)


    As you can see, "aquel" is for things that are more far away than just "ese"

    Needless to say that as everything else in Spanish, the demonstratives have also gender (fem. masc.) and number (sing. plur.) depending on the name that they go with.

    Examples:
    • Este libro (this book)
    • Esta casa (this house)
    • Estas playas (these beaches)
    • Estes amigos (these friends)
    • Esta pared (this wall)




    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:50 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:53 pm


    Let's see now the different options that we have when using the phone Notice that all the questions and exclamations in Spanish are written also with opening sign.


    En el telefono:
    • 1.- ¿Diga?
      Hello? (tell me?)

    • 2.- Hola, buenos días. ¿Puedo hablar con el Señor García por favor?
      Hello good morning. Can I speak with Mr. García please? (always THE Mr. Garcia)

    • No, lo siento, en este momento el Sr. García no está
      No, I am sorry, Mr. García isn't here right now ( in this moment)

    • Si, un momento por favor
      Yes, one moment please

    • El Sr. García está en una reunion en este momento, ¿quiere dejar un mensaje?
      Mr. García is in a meeting right now, do you want to leave a message?

    • 3.- No gracias, prefiero llamar más tarde
      No thanks, I prefer to call again later (preferir= to prefer, llamar= to call)


    Now we are the ones receiving a call...

    • 1.- Hola ¿está Sara?
      Hi, is Sara home? (Literal = Hi, is Sara?)

    • 2- No, se ha equivocado de número
      No, you have the wrong number

    • i Ah ! lo siento...
      Ah! sorry

    • 3.- No, Sara no está, volverá en quince minutos
      No, Sara isn't here she will be back in 15 minutos.

    • The rest of the phrases will be the same as for Mr. Garcia (he isn't here, he is in some place, do you wanna leave a message...)


    Now let's analize:
    • Se ha equivocado = Literally this means " You have wronged yourself" Equivocarse is to make a mistake, but you can also make another person to commit a mistake, that's why it's reflexive -SE.
    • The best way to ask for somebody in a company, or when calling to some place is with "Puedo hablar con..." (may I speak with).
    • We say "lo siento" when the person is not in the place to apologize, but in a soft way because we didn't do anything really... it's not our fault that the person isn't there.





    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:51 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:54 pm


    VOCABULARY


    • Calle = Street
    • Plaza = Square
    • Pueblo = Village

    • Ciudad = City
    • Pa ís = Country
    • Mundo = World

    • Comida = Food
    • Bebida = Drink

    • Cuchillo = Knive
    • Tenedor = Fork
    • Cuchara = Spoon
    • Plato = Plate
    • Vaso = Glass
    • Copa = Glass (wine/whisky)
    • Taza = Cup
    • Mantel = tablecloth
    • Cucharilla = teaspoon

    • Playa = beach
    • Campo = Forest
    • Cine = Cinema
    • Fiesta = Party

    • Tienda = shop
    • Casa = house
    • Edificio = Building
    • Piso = Flat

    • Suelo = Floor
    • Techo = ceiling
    • Pared = wall

    • Habitación = room
    • Dormitorio = bedroom
    • Baño = toilet / bathroom
    • Servicio = toilet
    • Cocina = kitchen
    • Sala = living room
    • Sala de estar = living room
    • Salón = living room

    • Balcón = Balcony
    • Pasillo = corridor / aisle
    • Tejado = roof
    • Sótano = basement
    • Tendedero = drying area
    • Entrada = entrance






    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:51 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:55 pm


    THE QUESTIONS

    • ¿Qué? = What?
    • ¿Cómo? = How?
    • ¿Cuándo? = when?
    • ¿Cuál? = Which?
    • ¿Dónde? = Where?
    • ¿Quién? = Who?
    • ¿Por qué? = Why?
    • ¿Con qué? = with what?


    All the question marks have accent to diferentiate them from their identical forms when answering the question.

    ¿Por qué? separate and with accent for question,
    Porque together and without accent for the answer (because)


    IMPORTANT: Many students have assumed that you must answer with the question you are asked...
    It's wrong. A question starting with ¿Dónde? not necessarily must be answered also with donde, exactly as in English ( -where did you left the milk? - In the kitchen)



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:52 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:55 pm


    LOS VERBOS / THE VERBS :


    As we remember the verbs in Spanish have 3 conjugations AR ER IR let's see begining to understand the verbs and pronouns with 1 verb from each conjugation.

    -AR : NADAR (TO SWIM)
    • yo nado = I swim
    • t ú nadas = You swim
    • él/ella nada = He/she swims
    • nosotros nadamos = We swim
    • vosotros nadais = You swim
    • ellos nadan = They swim


    -ER : COMER (TO EAT)
    • yo como = I eat
    • t ú com es = You eat
    • él/ella com e = He/she eats
    • nosotros com emos = We eat
    • vosotros com eis = You eat
    • ellos comen = They eat


    -IR : VIVIR (TO LIVE)
    • yo vivo = I live
    • t ú vives = You live
    • él/ella vive = He/she lives
    • nosotros vivimos = We live
    • vosotros vivís = You live
    • ellos viven = They live


    All the verbs will follow the same conjugation if they are not irregular. Some change in the root due to their latin or greek roots. So, let's make some examples.

    • BEBER (to drink) -ER = Yo bebo, tu bebes, él bebe, nosotros bebemos...
    • DORMIR (to sleep) -IR = Yo duermo, tu duermes, el duerme, nosotros dormimos...
    • ESTAR (to be "inestable things") -AR = Yo estoy, tu est ás, el est á, nosotros estamos...


    Estar is irregular, that's why the first person finishes in Y, even so the irregularities in Spanish are less than in other languages (1 letter as you can see)

    Dormir changes in the root due to it's Latin roots.



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 2:07 am, editado 4 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:56 pm


    THE GERUND


    We have seen the present, now let's go with the gerund. In English the gerund is the verb in infinitive finishing in -ING

    Cook = Cooking, Play = Playing, Sleep = Sleeping etc.


    In Spanish the ending ING we get it adding ANDO to the verbs finishing in AR and IENDO to the verbs finishing in ER and IR.

    Comer = Comiendo (eating) Beber = bebiendo (drinking) Nadar = nadando (swimming).


    The auxiliary in Spanish will always be ESTAR when in english we use TO BE

    So, let's see how we form the continous present or Presente continuo

    Yo estoy comiendo = I am eating
    Nosotros estamos bebiendo = We are drinking
    Ella est á viviendo = she is living
    Vosotros estais nadando = You are swimming


    DON'T FORGET : In Spanish each pronoun has it's ending, so for most of the cases there is no need to write the pronoun because it's obvious who we are talking about.

    It's more natural to say "estoy comiendo" than "yo estoy comiendo" Estoy can only be for Yo.

    ACABAR = TO FINISH (yo acabo, tu acabas, el acaba, nosotros acabamos, vosotros acabais, ellos acaban)

    This verb is used to form the immediate past or pasado inmediato. It will allow us to make phrases in past using the verbs in infinitive, with the condition that the action was done recently.

    Acabo de comer = I've just eaten (literally I finished eating)
    Ababas de dormir = You've just slept
    Acabamos de beber = We've just drank


    We conjugate the first verb, the second is always the same (goes in infinitive)

    IR = TO GO This verb is a lil irregular in it's root but not in the endings (yo voy, tú vas, é l vá , nosotros vamos, vosotros vais, ellos vá n)

    We can use this verb to make the immediate future or futuro inmediato.
    voy a comer = I am going to eat
    vas a beber = you are going to eat
    vamos a tener = we are going to have
    vais a poder = you are going to be able


    So in this simple way we are already able to make sentences in present (yo nado) continuous present ( estoy nadando) immediate past (acabo de nadar) and immediate future (voy a nadar) and we don't need to get into endings yet.




    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:53 am, editado 4 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:56 pm


    We have numbers, adjectives, nouns, verbs in different forms, prepositions etc. now we will put everything together to build complex sentences and to understand them.

    • 1- Hola, buenas tardes. Mi nombre es Javier Ramos, quiero hablar con el Sr. Palacios

      -Lo siento, pero en estes momentos el Se ñ or Palacios está ocupado.

      -Lo comprendo, ¿Cuándo puedo hablar con él sobre mi contrato de trabajo?

      -Puede venir mañana a las tres si quiere.

    • 2.- Acabo de comer en un restaurante muy caro.

    • 3.- ¿Por qué no quieres ir a la fiesta? -Porque tengo mucho trabajo que hacer.

    • 4.- Acabo de estar en la tienda y no tienen queso.

    • 5.- No me gusta esta pe lí cula, es muy aburrida.

    • 6.- Tu casa es muy bonita, me gusta el color de las paredes, es muy elegante.

    • 7.- En mi casa comemos pollo los domingos por la tarde

    • 8.- ¿ Quieres ir al cine esta tarde o prefieres ir a la playa?

    • 9.- En ese pa ís la comida es muy buena y muy barata

    • 10.- He estado en tu ciudad y creo que es muy agradable.

    • 11.- Hay un libro muy bueno sobre esta pe lí cula.

    • 12.- Tengo que ir a la tienda porque no tenemos bebidas para la fiesta.

    • 13.- Miguel ha estado en Hawaii de vacaciones con su mujer.

    • 14.- En el mundo hay cientos de paises que hablan idiomas diferentes.

    • 15.- Voy a ir al campo esta semana con mi familia.

    • 16.- En este hotel las habitaciones tienen baño y cocina.

    • 17.- En la entrada del cine hay una puerta como la de star wars, me ha gustado mucho.

    • 18.- Mi amigo tiene un piso en este edificio, pero yo vivo en el centro

    • 19.- Cuando tengo tiempo, prefiero comer sano

    • 20.- Es imposible hacer este trabajo sin tres personas.




    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:54 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:57 pm


    S O L U C I O N E S


    1.-Hi, good evening. My name is Javier Ramos, I want to speak with Mr. Palacios.

    a)- I'm sorry, in these moments Mr. Palacios is busy.

    b)- I understand it, when can I speak with him about my job contract?

    c)- You can come tomorrow at 3.00 if you want.

    2.- I just ate in a very expensive restaurant

    3.- Why don't you want to go to the party? -Because I have a lot of work to do.

    4.- I just was in the shop and they have no cheese.

    5.- I don't like this movie, it's very boring

    6.- Your house is very beautiful, I like the colour of the walls, it's very elegant

    7.- In my house we eat chicken on sundays at evening

    8.- Do you want to go to the cinema this afternoon or you prefer to go to the beach?

    9.- In that country the food is very good and very cheap.

    10.- I have been in your city and I think it's very nice

    11.- There is a very good book about this movie

    12.- I have to go to the shop because we don't have drinks for the party

    13.- Miguel has been in Hawaii on hollidays with his wife (woman)

    14.- In the world there are hundreds of countries that speak different languages

    15.- I will go to the forest with my family this week

    16.- In this hotel the rooms have bathroom and kitchen

    17.- In the entrance of the cinema there is a door like the one in star wars, I liked it a lot.

    18.- My friend has a flat in this building but I live in the center.

    19.- When I have time I prefer to eat healthy

    20.- It's impossible to do this work without three people.



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:55 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:57 pm


    GENERAL GRAMMAR RULES


    -We use the article exactly as in English, if we want milk in general we don't say "I want the milk for my coffe" If the article goes in English it will go in Spanish.
    -Everything coincides in gender and number except verbs and adverbs. If we say the houses are red we must put everything in plural and feminine "Las casas son rojas"
    -The name always goes first, then the adjective except for some exceptions we will see in the future, like in (casa roja, libro verde)

    Remember this grammar rules when you translate the following phrases:

    • I like to eat chicken with my friends =
    • I go to the cinema because I like this movie =
    • Do you have a big table in the room? (do you have is only 1 word) =
    • When can I go to speak with the manager? =
    • Your house is very big, we can do a party today =

    SOLUTIONS :
    Me gusta comer pollo con mis amigos (never THE chicken, cause it's in general)
    Voy al cine porque me gusta la película
    Tienes una mesa grande en tu habitacion
    ¿Cuando puedo ir a hablar con el manager?
    Mi casa es muy grande, podemos hacer una fiesta hoy.



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:55 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:57 pm


    ADVERBIOS

    PLACE (lugar):
    • Aquí = Here
    • Allí = there
    • Allá = there (sinonim, but less used)

    But never "Aca"...this southamerican term is strongly rejected by the Spanish Royal academy.
    • Lejos = far
    • Cerca = close
    • Fuera = Outside
    • Dentro = inside
    • Encima = over
    • Sobre = Over (sinonim, the most used)
    • Detrás = Behind
    • Delante = in front
    • Debajo = under


    Sobre is also used like "about" in a subject To speak about cinema = Hablar sobre cine

    TIME (tiempo):
    • Ahora = now
    • Ayer = yesterday
    • Hoy = today
    • Mañana = tomorrow
    • Luego = later
    • Después = later/after
    • Siempre = always
    • Entonces = then
    • Tarde = late (evening also)
    • Temprano = early
    • A tiempo = on time
    • Nunca = never
    • Jamás = never ever ever...
    • Antes = before .
    • Mientras = During
    • Durante = During/while


    QUANTITY (cantidad)
    • Bastante = enough
    • Mucho = a lot/ much
    • Muy = very The expression "very much" in Spanish can't be formed with muy mucho, only with mucho.
    • Demasiado = too much
    • Más = more
    • Menos = less
    • Algo = something
    • Nada = nothing
    • Alguien = somebody
    • Nadie = nobody
    • Alguno = some
    • Ninguno = none
    • Poco = lil
    • Pocos = few
    • Tan = so
    • Tanto = so much
    • Todo = everything
    • Apenas = barely
    • Solo = only


    NEG. AFIRM. DOUBT
    (doubt = duda)
    • También = too/ also
    • Quizas = maybe
    • Tal vez = maybe
    • Aun = yet
    • Todavía = still / yet


    To make the names little we use -ITO -ITA
    Cat = Gato
    Kitty = Gatito

    We must be careful when using this resource, it's better to use small cat than kitty if we don't wanna sound too funny with some words. "La casa es pequeña" better than es una casita pequeñita.

    To make the names big we use -isimo, only with one S.

    Grande = big
    Grandísimo = very big

    like with the diminutive, it's better to say muy grande than grandísimo.




    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:56 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:58 pm


    La comida

    Let's learn now all the vocabulary related with the food:

    • Carne = Meat
    • Pescado = Fish
    • Verdura/s = vegetables
    • Postre = Dessert
    • Pasta = Pasta
    • Fruta = fruit
    • Marisco = seafood
    • Algas = seaplants
    • Arroz = rice
    • Filete = filet
    • Costillas / Costilletas / Chuletas = chops / ribs / cutlets
    • Sopa = Soup
    • Zumo = juice
    • Batido = milkshake
    • Helado = icecream
    • Agua = water
    • Vino = wine
    • Leche = milk
    • Tomate = tomato
    • Lechuga = lettuce
    • Maiz = corn
    • Ensalada = salad
    • Pollo = chicken
    • Aceite = oil
    • Mantequilla = butter
    • Manzana = apple
    • Naranja = orange
    • Plátanos = bananas (also used "bananas")
    • Cerezas = cherries
    • Fresas = strawberries
    • Azucar = sugar
    • Sal = salt
    • Nata = cream
    • Cereales = Cereals
    • Patatas = potatos / chips
    • Zanahoria = carrot
    • Cebolla = onion
    • Ajo = garlic
    • Harina = flour
    • Pastel = pie
    • Tarta = cake
    • Salsa = sauce / gravy
    • Jamón = ham


    When we make a sandwich with normal bread it's called "Bocadillo", in southamerica it's called "Emparedado", both terms accepted by the Royal Academy of Language. Everything that we put in these sandwiches or bocadillos consisting of meat is Embutido. So, sausages would be embutido, bacon would be embutido. We can translate this word by "dried meat products".

    In the restaurant...
    - Hola buenos días, ¿ Que van a tomar?
    - Hello good morning, what are you going to have?

    - Para mi mujer una sopa de verduras, un filete de pollo con tomate y patatas. Yo voy a tomar sopa de marisco, ensalada de lechuga y pescado con patatas.
    - For my wife, a vegetable soup, chicken filet with tomato and chips. I am going to have seafood soup, salad with lettuce and fish with chips.

    - Excelente elección, en cinco minutos estoy aqu í con la comida.
    - Excellent choice, in 5 minutes I am here with the food .

    -De acuerdo Gracias
    - Ok thanks.

    Let's analize:
    TOMAR = TO TAKE, but only for restaurants and bars (for transports is quite old fashioned) we also will use it with notes "Tomar notas" = To take notes. If you want to use TO TAKE you must translate it like COGER for all the other cases.

    De acuerdo = I agree, O.K, all correct... (remember this one, it's very used)

    We have seen Mujer = woman / wife, for husband we must say Marido. To say "Mi Hombre" would be so strange as to say "My man and me will go to the dinner tomorrow".



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:56 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 7:59 pm


    UNIDADES DE TIEMPO

    • Segundo = second
    • Minuto = minute
    • Hora = Hour

    • D ía = day
    • Mes = month
    • Año = year
    • Siglo = century

    • Medio/a = half
    • Cuarto = quarter

    • Son las tres = It's three o'clock
    • Es la una = it's one o'clock
    • Son las seis = it's six o'clock (always with the article to say the time)
    • Son las dos y media = It's half past two
    • Son las tres y cuarto = it's a quarter past 3.00
    • Son las cinco menos cuarto = it's a quarter to five
    • Son las seis y veinte = it's 20 past six
    • Es la una menos cinco = it's five minutes to one

    • For precise time we would say "son las catorce treinta y dos" = 14.32
    • To express the time period we will say " son las seis de la mañana" = it's six in the morning or, " son las tres de la tarde" = it's three in the afternoon.





    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:57 am, editado 3 veces
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    Mensaje  LiA Vie Mayo 29, 2009 8:00 pm


    THE DIFFERENT PRONOUNS


    • Este libro es mío = This book is mine
    • Este es mi libro = This is my book
    • Estas son mis casas = These are my houses
    • Estas casas son mias = These houses are mine

    • Mi libro es verde, el tuyo es rojo = My book is green, yours is red ("the yours")
    • Su amigo trabaja en mi oficina = His friend works in my office
    • Tu mujer es muy amiga de la mia = Your wife is very friend of mine (of my wife)
    • Vuestro coche es nuevo = your car is new
    • Nuestras tiendas preferidas est án en el centro = our favourite shops are in the center

    • Conmigo = with me
    • Contigo = with you
    • Con el = with him
    • Con nosotros = with us ... the rest are totally regular

    Puedes ir conmigo en el coche = you can come with me in the car



    Última edición por LiA el Dom Jun 07, 2009 1:57 am, editado 3 veces

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